highly colouress liquid,with characteristic odour.
The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible.
Reacts with strong oxidants , causing fire and explosion hazard. Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12 — that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of three structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, pentane means exclusively the n-pentane isomer; the other two being called 'methylbutane' and 'dimethylpropane'. Cyclopentane is not an isomer of pentane.
Pentanes are components of some fuels and are employed as specialty solvents in the laboratory. Their properties are very similar to those of butanes and hexanes.
The boiling points of the pentane isomers range from about 9 to 36 °C. As is the case for other alkanes, the more branched isomers tend to have lower boiling points.
The same trend normally holds for the melting points of alkane isomers, and indeed that of isopentane is 30 °C lower than that of n-pentane. However, the melting point of neopentane, the most heavily branched of the three, is 100 °C higher that of isopentane. The anomalously high melting point of neopentane has been attributed to the better solid-state packing assumed to be possible with its tetrahedral molecule; but this explanation has been challenged on account of it having a lower density than the other two isomers.
The branched isomers are more stable (have lower heat of formation and heat of combustion) than normal pentane. The difference is 1.8 kcal/mol for isopentane, and 5 kcal/mol for neopentane.
Rotation about two central single C-C bonds of n-pentane produces four different conformations.
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